Concerning trespasses against our neighbour. (Verse 1-7.)
Concerning the burnt-offering. (Verse 8-13.)
Concerning the meat-offering. (Verse 14-23.)
Concerning the sin-offering. (Verse 24-30.)
1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
2 If a soul sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and lie unto his neighbour in that which was delivered him to keep, or in fellowship, or in a thing taken away by violence, or hath deceived his neighbour;
3 Or have found that which was lost, and lieth concerning it, and sweareth falsely; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein:
4 Then it shall be, because he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took violently away, or the thing which he hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was delivered him to keep, or the lost thing which he found,
5 Or all that about which he hath sworn falsely; he shall even restore it in the principal, and shall add the fifth part more thereto, and give it unto him to whom it appertaineth, in the day of his trespass offering.
God’s solution for the five sins listed in vs. 2-3 was for the thief to return that which was taken along with an extra 20% (add the fifth part – v.5) in the “day of his trespass offering.
6 And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass offering, unto the priest:
Here God deals with the sins of lying, and stealing in relation to the trespass offering and what we want to focus on here is the addition of a fifth part unto the penalty. Twenty percent was to be added to the repayment of someone they have sinned against for loss of time and wages.
He not only had to make restitution for his sin and add twenty percent to it as a penalty for his transgression or trespass, but he also had to offer a very expensive Ram as a sacrifice to the priest before his sin could be atoned (covered). This would serve to teach them that sin cost a lot.
I don’t know who said it but there is a saying about sin that goes like this: Sin costs you more than you can afford to pay, it keeps you longer than you wanted to stay.
Sin ultimately would have to have an innocent die (the Ram) for the guilty (the sinner). This served as a constant reminder of the costliness of sin to the nation.
7 And the priest shall make an atonement for him before the LORD: and it shall be forgiven him for any thing of all that he hath done in trespassing therein.
8 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
9 Command Aaron and his sons, saying, This is the law of the burnt offering: It is the burnt offering, because of the burning upon the altar all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall be burning in it.
the “laws” concerning each of these offerings is summarize in 6:9; 6:14; 6:25; 7:1; and 7:11. Certain important points from chapters 1-5 are re-emphasised.
10 And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which the fire hath consumed with the burnt offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar.
11 And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place.
12 And the fire upon the altar shall be burning in it; it shall not be put out: and the priest shall burn wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt offering in order upon it; and he shall burn thereon the fat of the peace offerings.
13 The fire shall ever be burning upon the altar; it shall never go out.
The fire shall ever be burning on the altar and it would never go out. God started the fire and the Priests were responsible for keeping it going.
What other fire always burns and never goes out? (see Mark 9:43)
14 And this is the law of the meat offering: the sons of Aaron shall offer it before the LORD, before the altar.
15 And he shall take of it his handful, of the flour of the meat offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which is upon the meat offering, and shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet savour, even the memorial of it, unto the LORD.
16 And the remainder thereof shall Aaron and his sons eat: with unleavened bread shall it be eaten in the holy place; in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation they shall eat it.
[1st Cor 9:13]
17 It shall not be baken with leaven. I have given it unto them for their portion of my offerings made by fire; it is most holy, as is the sin offering, and as the trespass offering.
18 All the males among the children of Aaron shall eat of it. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations concerning the offerings of the LORD made by fire: every one that toucheth them shall be holy.
The meat offering was actually a meal offering. It was an offering for the LORD and for the Priests. Only the priests who had sanctified themselves were supposed to partake or even touch of this bread.
This offering was to be baked without leaven and was to be divided into two piles, one for the LORD and the other for the Priests. The parts for the LORD were to be wholly burnt on the altar while the parts for the priests were to be eaten.
19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
20 This is the offering of Aaron and of his sons, which they shall offer unto the LORD in the day when he is anointed; the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meat offering perpetual, half of it in the morning, and half thereof at night.
21 In a pan it shall be made with oil; and when it is baken, thou shalt bring it in: and the baken pieces of the meat offering shalt thou offer for a sweet savour unto the LORD.
22 And the priest of his sons that is anointed in his stead shall offer it: it is a statute for ever unto the LORD; it shall be wholly burnt.
23 For every meat offering for the priest shall be wholly burnt: it shall not be eaten.
This meat offering was for the nation and it was to be wholly burnt. It was not to be eaten by Aaron or his sons or any priest afterwards.
24 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
25 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, saying, This is the law of the sin offering: In the place where the burnt offering is killed shall the sin offering be killed before the LORD: it is most holy.
26 The priest that offereth it for sin shall eat it: in the holy place shall it be eaten, in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation.
27 Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereof shall be holy: and when there is sprinkled of the blood thereof upon any garment, thou shalt wash that whereon it was sprinkled in the holy place.
28 But the earthen vessel wherein it is sodden shall be broken: and if it be sodden in a brasen pot, it shall be both scoured, and rinsed in water.
29 All the males among the priests shall eat thereof: it is most holy.
30 And no sin offering, whereof any of the blood is brought into the tabernacle of the congregation to reconcile withal in the holy place, shall be eaten: it shall be burnt in the fire.
Hophni and Phineas would take not only their own portion but much of God’s portion of this offering and Eli the High Priest did nothing to correct his son’s behavior in this matter.
This caused the people not to want to bring their offerings to the tabernacle because of these two wicked sons of Eli.
Commentary by Matthew Henry, 1710.
Verse 1-7 – Though all the instances relate to our neighbour, yet it is called a trespass against the Lord. Though the person injured be mean, and even despicable, yet the injury reflects upon that God who has made the command of loving our neighbour next to that of loving himself. Human laws make a difference as to punishments; but all methods of doing wrong to others, are alike violations of the Divine law, even keeping what is found, when the owner can be discovered. Frauds are generally accompanied with lies, often with false oaths. If the offender would escape the vengeance of God, he must make ample restitution, according to his power, and seek forgiveness by faith in that one Offering which taketh away the sin of the world. The trespasses here mentioned, still are trespasses against the law of Christ, which insists as much upon justice and truth, as the law of nature, or the law of Moses.
Verse 8-13 – The daily sacrifice of a lamb is chiefly referred to. The priest must take care of the fire upon the altar. The first fire upon the altar came from heaven, ch. 9:24. by keeping that up continually, all their sacrifices might be said to be consumed with the fire from heaven, in token of God’s acceptance. Thus should the fire of our holy affections, the exercise of our faith and love, of prayer and praise, be without ceasing.
Verse 14-23 – The law of the burnt-offerings put upon the priests a great deal of care and work; the flesh was wholly burnt, and the priests had nothing but the skin. But most of the meat-offering was their own. It is God’s will that his ministers should be provided with what is needful.
Verse 24-30 – The blood of the sin-offering was to be washed out of the clothes on which it should happen to be sprinkled, which signified the regard we ought to have to the blood of Christ, not counting it a common thing. The vessel in which the flesh of the sin-offering was boiled must be broken, if it were an earthen one; but if a brazen one, well washed. This showed that the defilement was not wholly taken away by the offering; but the blood of Christ thoroughly cleanses from all sin. All these rules set forth the polluting nature of sin, and the removal of guilt from the sinner to the sacrifice. Behold and wonder at Christ’s love, in that he was content to be made a sin-offering for us, and so to procure our pardon for continual sins and failings. He that knew no sin was made sin (that is, a sin-offering) for us, 2nd Corinthians 5:21. Hence we have pardon, and not only pardon, but power also, against sin, Romans 8:3.