The sickness of Lazarus. (Verse 1-6.)
Christ returns to Judea. (Verse 7-10.)
The death of Lazarus. (Verse 11-16.)
Christ arrives at Bethany. (Verse 17-32.)
He raises Lazarus. (Verse 33-46.)
The Pharisees consult against Jesus. (Verse 47-53.)
The Jews seek for him. (Verse 54-57.)
John is the only gospel which records the story of the raising of Lazarus which is one of the reasons that John is not considered one of the synoptic gospels, because it covers very little of what the others cover and many things they don’t.
Lazarus was apparently a popular name in those days, Jesus when describing what it is like in hell in the book of Luke tells about a real man by the name of Lazarus that went to Abraham’s bosom.
He was just across a great gulf from the place of torment we call hell. This was a real story about real people in very real places.
This is not the same Lazarus as we find in this story. This Lazarus has two sisters while the Lazarus in Luke 16 has five brothers.
The name Lazarus means: God will help. Indeed he will. Lazarus and his sisters Mary and Martha lived in Bethany just outside of Jerusalem adjacent to the mount of Olives.
1 Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha.
[Matt 26:6, Mark 14:3, John 12:1]
2 (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.)
3 Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick.
4 When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby.
obviously Lazarus did physically die (vs. 14), but it was not a permanent physical death (vs. 44), therefore Jesus makes this distinction and even calls this temporary death “sleep” in verse 11. The body is what slept, not the soul.
5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus.
6 When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was.
7 Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judaea again.
8 His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again?
9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.
the Jewish day did not go from midnight to midnight as our time does. The Jewish day went from sunset to sunset. The “night” went from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am and the “day” from 6:00 am to 6:00 pm. There were 12 hours in the day – compare 1:39; 4:6; 4:52; etc.
10 But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him.
11 These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep.
12 Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well.
13 Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep.
14 Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead.
15 And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him.
16 Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellowdisciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him.
How did Jesus know that Lazarus was dead? Don’t ask a liberal, because he claimed he was God. Jesus was, and is still the all-knowing Son of God who has power to raise from the dead all who believe in him
17 Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already.
18 Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off:
[Matt 21:17, Mark 11:11]
19 And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother.
20 Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house.
21 Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.
22 But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee.
23 Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again.
24 Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.
25 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:
a physically dead man can not believe; a spiritually dead person however can believe.
26 And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?
“never die” – reference to the second death in the lake of fire; refer back to John 8:51.
27 She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world.
Martha believed in the resurrection of the dead at the last day and she believed that Jesus was the Christ, the Son of God, what she didn’t know, and Jesus informed her and us about at this time was that he was the resurrection and the life. He was that day she was looking forward to and all of Israel.
What an amazing statement to make, but Jesus really is the resurrection, because he is the Creator, and he is also the rewarder of all those who follow him.
On the resurrection day he will reward Martha, and Mary and Lazarus for their faith in him, as well as all of believing Israel.
Statements that Jesus is the Christ, Son of God.
Temptation in the Wilderness. Matt 4:3, 6,
By Disciples after He walked on the water. Matt 14:33
By Peter Matt 16:16, Mark 8:29, Luke 9:20 John 6:69
Asked by High Priest Matt 26:63
By Unclean Spirits Mark 3:11, Mark 5:7 Luke 4:41
By the Angel to Mary Luke 1:35
By John John 1:34
By Nathanael John 1:49
By Martha John 11:27
By the Ethiopian Eunuch Acts 8:37
By Saul of Tarsus Acts 9:20
Necessary for God to dwell in you 1st John 4:15
Necessary to overcome the world 1st John 5:
28 And when she had so said, she went her way, and called Mary her sister secretly, saying, The Master is come, and calleth for thee.
29 As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, and came unto him.
30 Now Jesus was not yet come into the town, but was in that place where Martha met him.
31 The Jews then which were with her in the house, and comforted her, when they saw Mary, that she rose up hastily and went out, followed her, saying, She goeth unto the grave to weep there.
32 Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, and saw him, she fell down at his feet, saying unto him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.
33 When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled,
34 And said, Where have ye laid him? They said unto him, Lord, come and see.
35 Jesus wept.
shortest verse in the Bible
36 Then said the Jews, Behold how he loved him!
37 And some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that even this man should not have died?
Why did Jesus weep? I know he loved Lazarus with a greater love than anyone ever had for another human because he was God, but he knew that he was going to raise Lazarus from the dead, so he wasn’t weeping because he was dead.
I believe he was weeping because he truly feels our sorrows and as he looked upon Mary and Martha and all the others that truly believed the lost someone and they were hurting inside, Jesus himself was hurting inside for their pain and loss.
He feels our pains, whatever they may be, and he sticks closer than a brother and bares our burdens with us, if we would only remember he is with us when we suffer. We don’t have to go through things alone.
38 Jesus therefore again groaning in himself cometh to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay upon it.
39 Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath been dead four days.
40 Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God?
41 Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me.
42 And I knew that thou hearest me always: but because of the people which stand by I said it, that they may believe that thou hast sent me.
43 And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.
44 And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes: and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go.
Lazarus represents all of mankind which had been bound by sin for four thousand years since Adam fell in the garden and which could be resurrected by believing in the Lord.
45 Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on him.
46 But some of them went their ways to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done.
47 Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many miracles.
[Psa 2:2, Matt 26:3, Acts 4:27]
48 If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation.
the Romans controlled Israel. The Pharisees were afraid that if all men believed in Christ, the resulting revolt against the Romans would bring the Roman army to Israel which would rob the Pharisees of their positions of power in the Jewish system (their “place”).
49 And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all,
50 Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.
51 And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;
[Num 24:4, Matt 7:22, 1st Cor 13:2]
52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.
[abroad – outdoors; away from home; scattered about]
Caiaphas, a Christ-rejecting, unbelieving Pharisee unknowingly makes a prophecy. What he meant by his statement was that it was better that one man, Christ, be put to death than that the whole nation of Israel be destroyed by the Romans. What he inadvertently said however, was that Christ would die to protect the nation – which Jesus did in the spiritual sense in that his death provided spiritual salvation from sin for his people as well as for the world.
53 Then from that day forth they took counsel together for to put him to death.
[Matt 12:14, Mark 3:6, Luke 6:11, John 5:18, John 10:39]
54 Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews; but went thence unto a country near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples.
As the time grew nearer for Jesus to go to his cross, he received more and more condemnation from the religious leaders in Israel and had to restrict his ministry in his last days leading up to the cross in discipling his closest followers to prepare them for what would lie ahead.
55 And the Jews’ passover was nigh at hand: and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the passover, to purify themselves.
56 Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among themselves, as they stood in the temple, What think ye, that he will not come to the feast?
57 Now both the chief priests and the Pharisees had given a commandment, that, if any man knew where he were, he should shew it, that they might take him.
They chief priests and Pharisees kept digging their own grave deeper and deeper as time went on, now they were involving the laymen in their sin of betraying Jesus to them. There is a time in a person’s life when God says simply “Enough!”
They were quickly running out of time with a very merciful God who had offered many opportunities to them to repent and they would not.
Commentary by Matthew Henry, 1710.
Verse 1-6 – It is no new thing for those whom Christ loves, to be sick; bodily distempers correct the corruption, and try the graces of God’s people. He came not to preserve his people from these afflictions, but to save them from their sins, and from the wrath to come; however, it behoves us to apply to Him in behalf of our friends and relatives when sick and afflicted. Let this reconcile us to the darkest dealings of Providence, that they are all for the glory of God: sickness, loss, disappointment, are so; and if God be glorified, we ought to be satisfied. Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. The families are greatly favoured in which love and peace abound; but those are most happy whom Jesus loves, and by whom he is beloved. Alas, that this should seldom be the case with every person, even in small families. God has gracious intentions, even when he seems to delay. When the work of deliverance, temporal or spiritual, public or personal, is delayed, it does but stay for the right time.
Verse 7-10 – Christ never brings his people into any danger but he goes with them in it. We are apt to think ourselves zealous for the Lord, when really we are only zealous for our wealth, credit, ease, and safety; we have therefore need to try our principles. But our day shall be lengthened out, till our work is done, and our testimony finished. A man has comfort and satisfaction while in the way of his duty, as set forth by the word of God, and determined by the providence of God. Christ, wherever he went, walked in the day; and so shall we, if we follow his steps. If a man walks in the way of his heart, and according to the course of this world, if he consults his own carnal reasonings more than the will and glory of God, he falls into temptations and snares. He stumbles, because there is no light in him; for light in us is to our moral actions, that which light about us to our natural actions.
Verse 11-16 – Since we are sure to rise again at the last, why should not the believing hope of that resurrection to eternal life, make it as easy for us to put off the body and die, as it is to put off our clothes and go to sleep? A true Christian, when he dies, does but sleep; he rests from the labours of the past day. Nay, herein death is better than sleep, that sleep is only a short rest, but death is the end of earthly cares and toils. The disciples thought that it was now needless for Christ to go to Lazarus, and expose himself and them. Thus we often hope that the good work we are called to do, will be done by some other hand, if there be peril in the doing of it. But when Christ raised Lazarus from the dead, many were brought to believe on him; and there was much done to make perfect the faith of those that believed. Let us go to him; death cannot separate from the love of Christ, nor put us out of the reach of his call. Like Thomas, in difficult times Christians should encourage one another. The dying of the Lord Jesus should make us willing to die whenever God calls us.
Verse 17-32 – Here was a house where the fear of God was, and on which his blessing rested; yet it was made a house of mourning. Grace will keep sorrow from the heart, but not from the house. When God, by his grace and providence, is coming towards us in ways of mercy and comfort, we should, like Martha, go forth by faith, hope, and prayer, to meet him. When Martha went to meet Jesus, Mary sat still in the house; this temper formerly had been an advantage to her, when it put her at Christ’s feet to hear his word; but in the day of affliction, the same temper disposed her to melancholy. It is our wisdom to watch against the temptations, and to make use of the advantages of our natural tempers. When we know not what in particular to ask or expect, let us refer ourselves to God; let him do as seemeth him good. To enlarge Martha’s expectations, our Lord declared himself to be the Resurrection and the Life. In every sense he is the Resurrection; the source, the substance, the first-fruits, the cause of it. The redeemed soul lives after death in happiness; and after the resurrection, both body and soul are kept from all evil for ever. When we have read or heard the word of Christ, about the great things of the other world, we should put it to ourselves, Do we believe this truth? The crosses and comforts of this present time would not make such a deep impression upon us as they do, if we believed the things of eternity as we ought. When Christ our Master comes, he calls for us. He comes in his word and ordinances, and calls us to them, calls us by them, calls us to himself. Those who, in a day of peace, set themselves at Christ’s feet to be taught by him, may with comfort, in a day of trouble, cast themselves at his feet, to find favour with him.
Verse 33-46 – Christ’s tender sympathy with these afflicted friends, appeared by the troubles of his spirit. In all the afflictions of believers he is afflicted. His concern for them was shown by his kind inquiry after the remains of his deceased friend. Being found in fashion as a man, he acts in the way and manner of the sons of men. It was shown by his tears. He was a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief. Tears of compassion resemble those of Christ. But Christ never approved that sensibility of which many are proud, while they weep at mere tales of distress, but are hardened to real woe. He sets us an example to withdraw from scenes of giddy mirth, that we may comfort the afflicted. And we have not a High Priest who cannot be touched with a feeling of our infirmities. It is a good step toward raising a soul to spiritual life, when the stone is taken away, when prejudices are removed, and got over, and way is made for the word to enter the heart. If we take Christ’s word, and rely on his power and faithfulness, we shall see the glory of God, and be happy in the sight. Our Lord Jesus has taught us, by his own example, to call God Father, in prayer, and to draw nigh to him as children to a father, with humble reverence, yet with holy boldness. He openly made this address to God, with uplifted eyes and loud voice, that they might be convinced the Father had sent him as his beloved Son into the world. He could have raised Lazarus by the silent exertion of his power and will, and the unseen working of the Spirit of life; but he did it by a loud call. This was a figure of the gospel call, by which dead souls are brought out of the grave of sin: and of the sound of the archangel’s trumpet at the last day, with which all that sleep in the dust shall be awakened, and summoned before the great tribunal. The grave of sin and this world, is no place for those whom Christ has quickened; they must come forth. Lazarus was thoroughly revived, and returned not only to life, but to health. The sinner cannot quicken his own soul, but he is to use the means of grace; the believer cannot sanctify himself, but he is to lay aside every weight and hinderance. We cannot convert our relatives and friends, but we should instruct, warn, and invite them.
Verse 47-53 – There can hardly be a more clear discovery of the madness that is in man’s heart, and of its desperate enmity against God, than what is here recorded. Words of prophecy in the mouth, are not clear evidence of a principle of grace in the heart. The calamity we seek to escape by sin, we take the most effectual course to bring upon our own heads; as those do who think by opposing Christ’s kingdom, to advance their own worldly interest. The fear of the wicked shall come upon them. The conversion of souls is the gathering of them to Christ as their ruler and refuge; and he died to effect this. By dying he purchased them to himself, and the gift of the Holy Ghost for them: his love in dying for believers should unite them closely together.
Verse 54-57 – Before our gospel passover we must renew our repentance. Thus by a voluntary purification, and by religious exercises, many, more devout than their neighbours, spent some time before the passover at Jerusalem. When we expect to meet God, we must solemnly prepare. No devices of man can alter the purposes of God: and while hypocrites amuse themselves with forms and disputes, and worldly men pursue their own plans, Jesus still orders all things for his own glory and the salvation of his people.